Water plays an incredibly important role in almost all bodily functions, helps to remove toxic substances from the body, makes the skin hydrated.
There are several things we cannot ignore to preserve our health. These are nutrition, rest and exercise. No matter how well you eat, if you do not sleep and are not physically active, problems will arise. Likewise, if you exercise a lot, but eat poorly and don’t rest well enough, your body will not be comfortable with it.
Most of us know the importance of good nutrition. It is equally important to drink the right amount, directly or indirectly. There are innumerable benefits to bringing it into the body. It is the basic building block of all of us. It makes over 90 percent of the blood.
About 60-70 percent of the human body is made up of it. The exact value depends on the age and proportion of the muscle to fat (because muscle contains more of it than fat). Although it does not contain calories and nutrients, it is essential for life. We can survive for weeks without food, but without the most important liquid, only for days. The body does not retain it as it does with fats, so it is necessary to consume adequate amounts every day to maintain good health. For all these reasons, this type of treatment is a necessary thing for the world to function. We’ll explain how it works.
Pollution and protection
The rapid development of the industry has increased consumption and thus the production of large quantities of wastewater. First of all, chemical and similar specialized industries are major pollutants. And it is also difficult to refine the kind of pollution they create. Therefore, there is a need for special treatment or preparation for drinking.
Some of the most common pollutants are:
-industrial facilities (chemical, petrochemical, food, metal and other industries) You can find more about this at merusonline.com
-Energy facilities (thermal power plants, nuclear power plants, oil, and coal processing)
– livestock facilities
These are considered so-called “concentrated” sources of pollution.
There are also scattered sources, as it is even more difficult to determine the total contribution to pollution. But it is certain that they make a significant contribution. Those are:
-use of pesticides
– atmospheric precipitation
These are natural waters that have become environmentally harmful by its use. On that occasion, its physical, chemical or biological characteristics change so much that it becomes ineligible for the same use. They may be atmospheric (which is collected during precipitation or snowmelt) and groundwater that is least polluted; urban areas created by mixing sanitary (domestic) industrial and agricultural.
No matter where or how they are made, they must be refined if their quality does not fit the legal framework. The state itself determines the rate of consumption based on its development, and plans for the construction of supply and water treatment plants are based on this amount.
Sanitary wastewater is contaminated with feces and urine, residues from cooking, washing, and cleaning. They do not have sediments but contain dissolved and floating matter and are generally of similar composition. They are harmful to the environment due to the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and detergents.
Industrial waters are very diverse in pollution. They can also be hundreds of times more polluted than sanitary. The amount of pollution it causes is distinguished by the chemical industry, including pharmacy. These ones must be treated prior to mixing with the sanitary in the sewage system since they contain substances that cannot be removed in the municipal wastewater treatment plants. Such a procedure is called pre-treatment and is carried out within the plant.
Agricultural wastewater contains pesticides and fertilizers that flow directly from the soil into groundwater or surface one nearby.
How is wastewater treated?
Primary (mechanical) purification removes dissolved and floating particles or sediments using grilles, precipitators, grease traps. Chemical agents are sometimes added to improve deposition.
Secondary (biological) purification is the cultivation of certain types of bacteria that eliminate biodegradable pollution, ie. adopt them for their own growth. Both aerobic (use oxygen) and anaerobic bacteria (do not use oxygen) can be used.
The tertiary treatment removes nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. Large quantities of phosphorus cannot be eliminated biologically, because it requires an equal amount of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus (which is impaired in this case). This is why chemicals are deposited.
Finally, a quaternary purification comes to the final removal of residual pollution by filtration or absorption, sometimes followed by disinfection.
Refining for drinking water
The requirements for the quality of natural waters that will be used for supply purposes are legally defined. The hygiene rules define the type, scope and standard procedures of sample analysis, the frequency and manner of sampling, and the maximum concentration of unhealthy substances allowed. It must have physical, chemical, bacteriological and radiological characteristics that will not under any circumstances adversely affect human health.
Methods for refining have been in recent years, with the development of science and technology spanning a number of major and complementary processes. They are combined into one technological process, which can be both simple and complex. Knowledge of chemistry and biology is crucial, as this knowledge is based on the methods that will be used in the process. Common methods are coagulation and flocculation, precipitation, filtration, and disinfection.
In addition to chemical quality, the requirement of absolute sterility is often posed for some technological needs. This is most often the case in the food industry where it is largely incorporated into a product, or e.g. in a variety of cosmetic or medical-pharmaceutical applications. The sterilization method with UV sterilizers is extremely effective because it virtually instantly destroys fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, and viruses.
It is based on the illumination of water by a UV lamp housed in a quartz tube that is surrounded by water in a thinner layer. Operating costs are very low and are reduced to periodic cleaning of quartz glass, as well as annual replacement of UV lamps. For proper operation of the UV sterilizer, maximum transparency must be ensured, which is achieved by some pre-treatment.
This is a very important topic for all of us and we should all be educated and try not to pollute one of the most important things on our planet.